15 Historical Facts about London

London is a city with a rich and fascinating history that spans nearly two millennia. From its founding by the Romans to its role as a major cultural and economic center, London has played a significant role in shaping the world we know today. In this article, we will explore 15 historical facts about London, including its founding, medieval period, royal history, cultural heritage, and architectural marvels.

Key Takeaways

  • London was founded by the Romans in 43 CE and was known as Londinium.
  • The Tower of London is a historic castle that has served various purposes throughout history, including a royal palace, prison, and treasury.
  • The Great Fire of London in 1666 destroyed much of the city, leading to significant architectural changes.
  • The Tudor Dynasty, led by Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, played a crucial role in shaping London’s royal history.
  • The West End is a vibrant cultural district in London, known for its theaters, shopping, and entertainment venues.

The Founding of London

The Legend of the Founding

According to legend, London was founded by the ancient Roman king, Brutus. After a long journey, Brutus and his followers arrived on the banks of the River Thames. They encountered a group of giants led by Gogmagog, who were inhabiting the land. In a fierce battle, Brutus managed to defeat Gogmagog and his giants, establishing his rule over the land. This legendary battle is said to have taken place on the site where the city of London now stands.

It’s fascinating to imagine the epic clash between Brutus and the giants, and how this event shaped the destiny of London. The legend adds a mythical and adventurous element to the city’s founding, making it a captivating story that has been passed down through generations.

While the legend of the founding of London may not be historically accurate, it reflects the rich mythology and folklore that surrounds the city. It serves as a reminder of the deep roots and enduring legacy of London’s history.

The Roman Origins

London’s founding can be traced back to 43 CE when the Roman armies began their occupation of Britain under Emperor Claudius. They established a settlement called Londinium at a point just north of the marshy valley of the River Thames, between two low hills. The first definite mention of London occurs in 60 CE by the Roman historian Tacitus. Londinium quickly grew into an important trading and administrative center, with a population of around 60,000 people. It was a bustling city with a thriving economy, attracting merchants, craftsmen, and settlers from all over the Roman Empire. The Roman influence can still be seen in London today, with remnants of the ancient city’s walls and amphitheater still visible.

The Anglo-Saxon Era

Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman Conquest. The Anglo-Saxons were a Germanic people who migrated to Britain from what is now Germany and Denmark. They brought with them their own language, Old English, which would eventually evolve into the English language we know today. The Anglo-Saxon era saw significant cultural and political developments, including the establishment of kingdoms and the conversion to Christianity. It was a time of both conflict and innovation, as the Anglo-Saxons built impressive structures such as churches and fortifications. The legacy of the Anglo-Saxon era can still be seen in the language, culture, and architecture of modern-day England.

London’s Medieval Period

The Tower of London

The Tower of London is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It has a rich and fascinating history that dates back to the 1070s. The construction of the Tower began during this time, with the iconic White Tower being the first structure to be built. Originally standing at 90 feet tall, the White Tower served as a symbol of power and authority. Over the years, the Tower of London has served various purposes, including a royal palace, a prison, and even a treasury.

One interesting fact about the Tower of London is that it houses the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom. These precious jewels, including the famous Koh-i-Noor diamond, are displayed in the Jewel House and are guarded by the Yeoman Warders, also known as the Beefeaters. The Tower also has a dark and gruesome history as a place of imprisonment and execution. Famous prisoners held at the Tower include Anne Boleyn, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Guy Fawkes.

In addition to its historical significance, the Tower of London is also known for its architectural beauty. The complex consists of several buildings and towers, each with its own unique features. One notable example is the Traitor’s Gate, which served as the entrance for prisoners arriving by boat. Another iconic feature is the Tower Bridge, which spans the River Thames and provides a stunning view of the Tower of London.

Visitors to the Tower of London can explore its rich history through guided tours and exhibits. They can also witness the famous Ceremony of the Keys, a nightly ritual that has been taking place for over 700 years. During this ceremony, the Chief Yeoman Warder locks the Tower’s gates and delivers the keys to the Resident Governor, symbolizing the Tower’s security.

The Tower of London is not only a historical landmark but also a symbol of London’s resilience and endurance throughout the centuries. It stands as a testament to the city’s rich heritage and is a must-visit destination for history enthusiasts and tourists alike.

The Great Fire of London

The Great Fire of London, which occurred from September 2–5, 1666, is considered the worst fire in London’s history. It destroyed a large part of the City of London, including most of the buildings within the old Roman city walls. The fire started in a bakery on Pudding Lane and quickly spread due to strong winds and the close proximity of wooden buildings. Despite efforts to contain the fire, it raged on for three days, causing widespread devastation and leaving thousands homeless. The fire finally subsided after the wind changed direction and the buildings in its path were demolished to create firebreaks. The Great Fire of London led to significant changes in the city’s architecture and fire safety regulations, including the use of brick and stone in construction and the establishment of fire insurance companies.

The Black Death

The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history. It was a bubonic plague that swept through Europe in the 14th century, including London. The disease was caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, which was spread by fleas that infested black rats. The Black Death arrived in London in 1348 and quickly spread throughout the city, causing widespread death and suffering. It is estimated that the population of London decreased by at least 30% during the outbreak. The impact of the Black Death on London was profound, leading to social and economic upheaval. The city struggled to recover from the loss of population and the disruption to trade and commerce. However, the Black Death also brought about some positive changes. The shortage of labor caused by the high mortality rate led to higher wages for workers and a decline in feudalism. The outbreak also prompted improvements in public health and sanitation, as authorities sought to prevent the spread of the disease. Overall, the Black Death was a tragic event in London’s history, but it also had long-lasting effects on the city and its people.

London’s Royal History

The Tudor Dynasty

The Tudor Dynasty was an English royal dynasty of Welsh origin that played a significant role in shaping the history of England. It gave five sovereigns to England, including Henry VII and his son, Henry VIII. The Tudor period is known for its political and religious changes, including the establishment of the Church of England. During this time, England experienced a period of exploration and colonization, with famous figures like Sir Francis Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh leading expeditions to the New World. The Tudor Dynasty also witnessed the artistic and cultural flourishing of the Renaissance, with renowned playwright William Shakespeare producing some of his most famous works during this era.

One interesting fact about the Tudor Dynasty is that it was of Welsh origin, with its founder, Henry VII, being born in Wales. This Welsh connection is reflected in the red and white rose emblem of the Tudor Dynasty, which symbolizes the union of the House of Lancaster (represented by the red rose) and the House of York (represented by the white rose). This emblem can be seen on various historical sites and artifacts associated with the Tudor period.

To get a glimpse of the Tudor Dynasty’s impact on London, you can visit the Tower of London. Built during the reign of William the Conqueror, the Tower of London served as a royal palace, a prison, and a treasury. It is famous for its iconic White Tower, which stands tall at 96 meters and offers a breathtaking view of the city. Inside the Tower, you can explore the Crown Jewels, learn about the Tower’s dark history of executions and imprisonments, and even encounter the famous ravens that are said to protect the kingdom.

If you’re interested in the Tudor Dynasty, a visit to Hampton Court Palace is a must. This magnificent palace was a favorite residence of King Henry VIII and his six wives. You can wander through the opulent state apartments, stroll in the beautiful gardens, and even witness reenactments of Tudor life. Don’t forget to visit the Great Hall, where lavish banquets and grand celebrations took place during the Tudor era.

In conclusion, the Tudor Dynasty left a lasting impact on London and England as a whole. Its reign witnessed significant political, religious, and cultural changes, and its legacy can still be seen in the city’s historical sites and traditions. Exploring the Tudor period is like stepping back in time to a fascinating era of power, intrigue, and artistic brilliance.

The Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution of 1688-89 was a pivotal moment in English history. It marked the overthrow of King James II and the ascension of William III and Mary II to the throne. In November 1688, William landed in England with a seasoned army and won a few minor battles, causing James to panic and flee to France in December. The revolution was largely bloodless, with James’ supporters deserting him and joining the side of William and Mary. This event led to the establishment of constitutional monarchy in England and the passing of the English Bill of Rights in 1689, which limited the powers of the monarchy and affirmed the rights of Parliament. It was a significant step towards the modern democratic system we have today.

The Victorian Era

The Victorian Era in London was a time of great innovation, progress, and cultural change. It was during this period that London became the center of the British Empire and the world’s largest city. The Industrial Revolution brought about significant advancements in technology, transportation, and infrastructure, transforming London into a modern metropolis.

One of the most iconic landmarks of the Victorian Era is the Tower Bridge. Completed in 1894, it is a symbol of the city’s architectural marvels. The bridge is a combination of a bascule and suspension bridge, allowing it to open and accommodate passing ships. Today, it is a popular tourist attraction and offers stunning views of the River Thames.

Another notable feature of the Victorian Era is St. Paul’s Cathedral. Designed by Sir Christopher Wren, it is one of the most recognizable and beloved landmarks in London. The cathedral’s dome is an architectural masterpiece and provides a breathtaking view of the city from its observation gallery.

The Victorian Era also saw the construction of The Houses of Parliament, home to the iconic Big Ben clock tower. The Gothic Revival architecture of the building is a testament to the grandeur and elegance of the era. The Houses of Parliament are not only the seat of government but also a symbol of democracy and British history.

During this time, London experienced significant social and cultural changes. The city became a hub for literature, with renowned authors such as Charles Dickens and Oscar Wilde calling it home. The theater scene thrived in the West End, with famous plays and musicals entertaining audiences. The British Museum, founded in 1753, became a treasure trove of art, history, and culture, attracting visitors from around the world.

In conclusion, the Victorian Era in London was a period of immense growth and transformation. The city’s architectural marvels, cultural heritage, and social advancements continue to shape its identity to this day.

London’s Cultural Heritage

Shakespearean London

During the Elizabethan era, London became the center of the theatrical world, thanks to the works of the legendary playwright William Shakespeare. His plays, such as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and Macbeth, were performed in various theaters across the city, including the famous Globe Theatre. These plays captivated audiences with their compelling stories, memorable characters, and timeless themes. Shakespearean London was a vibrant and bustling place, with actors, playwrights, and theater enthusiasts flocking to the city to witness the magic of live performances. The legacy of Shakespeare’s works continues to resonate in London’s cultural landscape to this day.

The British Museum

The British Museum is one of the most iconic cultural institutions in London. It houses a vast collection of artifacts and artworks from around the world, spanning over two million years of history. With its grand neoclassical facade and impressive interior, the museum is a must-visit for history buffs and art enthusiasts alike.

Inside the British Museum, you’ll find treasures from ancient civilizations, including the Rosetta Stone, the Elgin Marbles, and the Egyptian mummies. These artifacts provide a fascinating glimpse into the lives and cultures of the past.

The museum is also known for its extensive collection of Greek and Roman art, with sculptures, pottery, and jewelry that showcase the artistic achievements of these ancient civilizations. Additionally, the British Museum houses important cultural artifacts from Africa, Asia, the Americas, and the Middle East, highlighting the global scope of its collection.

Visitors to the British Museum can explore its galleries and exhibitions, attend lectures and workshops, and even participate in hands-on activities. The museum also offers guided tours and audio guides to enhance the visitor experience.

If you’re planning a visit to London, make sure to include the British Museum on your itinerary. It’s a treasure trove of history and culture that will leave you in awe of the world’s rich heritage.

The West End

The West End is one of London’s most vibrant and exciting districts. It is known for its world-class entertainment, including theaters, musicals, and live performances. With iconic venues like the Royal Opera House, the West End is a haven for theater lovers. The district is also home to a wide range of restaurants, bars, and shops, making it a popular destination for both locals and tourists. Whether you’re looking to catch a show, indulge in some retail therapy, or enjoy a delicious meal, the West End has something for everyone.

London’s Architectural Marvels

The Tower Bridge

Tower Bridge is a movable bridge that spans the River Thames between the Greater London boroughs of Tower Hamlets and Southwark. It is an iconic symbol of London and one of the most famous bridges in the world. Tower Bridge is a double-leaf bascule bridge, which means it has two sections that can be raised to allow tall ships to pass through. The bridge was officially opened on June 30, 1894, and it quickly became a marvel of engineering and a popular tourist attraction.

Tower Bridge is not only a functional bridge but also a stunning architectural masterpiece. Its Victorian Gothic style and intricate detailing make it a sight to behold. The bridge is adorned with towers, walkways, and a central bascule span that can be raised to an angle of 86 degrees. When the bridge is raised, it offers a spectacular view of the River Thames and the surrounding area.

Tower Bridge is also home to the Tower Bridge Exhibition, where visitors can learn about the history and construction of the bridge. The exhibition includes interactive displays, historical artifacts, and a walkway that provides panoramic views of London. It is a must-visit attraction for anyone interested in the history and architecture of London.

If you’re planning to visit Tower Bridge, here are a few tips:

  • Check the bridge lift schedule to see if you can witness the bridge being raised. It’s a fascinating sight!
  • Take a walk along the high-level walkways for breathtaking views of the city.
  • Don’t forget to visit the Tower Bridge Exhibition to learn more about the bridge’s fascinating history.

Tower Bridge is not just a bridge; it’s a symbol of London’s rich history and architectural marvels. Whether you’re a local or a tourist, a visit to Tower Bridge is an experience you won’t forget.

St. Paul’s Cathedral

St. Paul’s Cathedral is one of the most iconic landmarks in London. It is an architectural marvel that has stood the test of time. The cathedral, with its stunning dome, is a masterpiece of design and engineering. It was built in the 17th century and has been a place of worship and a symbol of London’s resilience ever since.

Inside the cathedral, visitors can admire the intricate mosaics, beautiful stained glass windows, and the breathtaking views from the top of the dome. The Whispering Gallery, located inside the dome, is a unique feature that allows whispers to be heard on the opposite side. It’s a fascinating experience that showcases the cathedral’s remarkable acoustics.

If you’re interested in the history of St. Paul’s Cathedral, make sure to visit the crypt. It houses the tombs of many notable figures, including Sir Christopher Wren, the architect of the cathedral. Exploring the crypt is like stepping back in time and offers a glimpse into London’s rich past.

Fun Fact: Did you know that St. Paul’s Cathedral has been featured in several movies, including Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and Mary Poppins Returns? It’s not just a place of worship, but also a popular filming location!

To plan your visit to St. Paul’s Cathedral and to see what events and services are happening, check out their website.

The Houses of Parliament

The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, is located on the left bank of the River Thames in the borough of Westminster, London. It is a Gothic Revival architectural marvel that has become an iconic symbol of the city. The Palace of Westminster is not only the home of the British Parliament but also a significant cultural and historical landmark.

One interesting fact about the Houses of Parliament is that it is the meeting place of the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. These two houses play a crucial role in the democratic governance of the country.

The Palace of Westminster has a rich history dating back to the medieval period. It has witnessed numerous significant events and has been the stage for important debates and decisions that have shaped the course of British history.

Did you know? The Palace of Westminster is also the location of the famous Big Ben clock tower, which is one of the most recognizable landmarks in London.

London is home to some of the most stunning architectural marvels in the world. From the iconic Big Ben to the majestic Tower Bridge, the city is a treasure trove of architectural wonders. Whether you’re a history buff or simply appreciate beautiful design, exploring London’s architectural gems is a must-do. At LocoWeekend, we celebrate the unique and lesser-known attractions that make a city truly special. Join us on an anti-tourist trap journey as we uncover the hidden architectural gems of London. Visit our website to discover more about London’s architectural marvels and plan your next adventure.

In Conclusion

London is a city with a rich and fascinating history that spans nearly two millennia. From its founding by the Romans in 43 CE to its status as the capital of the United Kingdom, London has played a significant role in shaping the world we know today. With its iconic landmarks, diverse cultural scene, and vibrant atmosphere, it’s no wonder that London is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. Whether you’re exploring the medieval streets of the City of London, visiting world-class museums and art galleries, or enjoying a football match at one of the city’s stadiums, there’s always something exciting to discover in this dynamic city. So next time you find yourself in London, be sure to immerse yourself in its history, culture, and charm. You won’t be disappointed!

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the founding legend of London?

The founding legend of London tells the story of a Trojan prince named Brutus who established the city after defeating the giants who inhabited the land.

What are the Roman origins of London?

London was founded by the Romans in 43 CE when they established a settlement called Londinium on the north bank of the River Thames.

What was London like during the Anglo-Saxon era?

During the Anglo-Saxon era, London was a thriving trading center and the capital of the Kingdom of Essex.

What is the Tower of London?

The Tower of London is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames. It has served various purposes throughout history, including as a royal palace, prison, and treasury.

What was the impact of the Great Fire of London?

The Great Fire of London, which occurred in 1666, destroyed a large part of the city and led to the implementation of new building regulations and the construction of more fire-resistant buildings.

What was the Black Death in London?

The Black Death, also known as the Bubonic Plague, was a deadly pandemic that swept through London in the 14th century, resulting in the death of a large portion of the population.